git init

Create an empty repository or reinitialize an existing one

git init [--quiet] [--bare] [--template=] [--separate-git-dir ] [--shared[=]] [directory]

Creates an empty repository i.e. a .git directory with subdirectories for objects, refs/heads, refs/tags, and template files and an initial HEAD file that references the HEAD of the master branch.

Running in an existing repository is safe.

Only print error and warning messages
--template=template_directory the directory from which templates will be used.
--separate-git-dir= Instead of initializing the repository as a directory to either $GIT_DIR or ./.git/, create a text file there containing the path to the actual repository. This file acts as filesystem-agnostic Git symbolic link to the repository. If this is reinitialization, the repository will be moved to the specified path.
Default:permissions reported by umask.
Allows users belonging to the same group to push into that repository.
When specified, core.sharedRepository is set so that files and directories under $GIT_DIR are created with the requested permissions.
defaulting to group
umask | false Use permissions reported by umask. The default, when --shared is not specified.
group | true Make the repository group-writable, (and g+sx, the git group may be not the primary group of all users).
Loosens permissions,
The umask still applies to the other permission bits (for example. if umask is 0022, using group will not remove read privileges from other (non-group) users). See 0xxx for how to exactly specify the repository permissions.
0xxx 0xxx is an octal mode value for creating files. (and not only loosen permissions as group and all does).
0640 create a repo that is group-readable, but not group-writable or accessible to others.
0660 create a repo that is readable and writable to the current user and group, but inaccessible to others.
all | world | everybody Same as group, but make the repository readable by all users.

By default, receive.denyNonFastForwards is enabled in shared repositories, and you cannot force a non fast-forwarding push into it.

If you provide a directory,it will be created and the command is run in it.

--bare Create a bare repository in GIT_DIR or current working directory.


The template directory contains files and directories that will be copied to the $GIT_DIR

It will be the :

  1. argument with --template
  3. init.templateDir configuration variable; or
  4. default template directory: /usr/share/git-core/templates.
The default template directory includes a directory structure, suggested "exclude patterns" (see gitignore(5)), and sample hook files.

The sample hooks are all disabled by default, To enable one of the sample hooks rename it by removing its .sample suffix.
See githooks(5) for more general info on hook execution.

If the object storage directory is specified via $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY then the sha1 directories are created underneath - otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used..

$GIT_DIR is used instead of .git for the base of the repository.

The primary reason for rerunning git init is to pick up newly added templates (or to move the repository to another place if --separate-git-dir is given).


Start a new Git repository for an existing code base
 $ cd /path/to/my/codebase
 $ git init    #  Create a /path/to/my/codebase/.git directory.

Initialized empty Git repository in /Volumes/DATA/dgerman/Documents/computerstuff/firmware/3.30.3/pre/.git/

 $ git add     #  Add all existing files to the index.
 $ git commit  #  Record the pristine state as the first commit in the history.

Add file contents to the index

git add [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p] [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]] [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--] [...]

Updates the index using the current content found in the working tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit.
Adds the current content of existing paths as a whole, or only part of the changes made to the working tree files applied, or remove paths that do not exist in the working tree anymore.

The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and is used as the contents of the next commit.
After making any changes to the working tree, and before running commit use add to add new or modified files to the index.

Can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time add is run. To include changes in the next commit, run git add again.

git status displays a summary of files change and staged for the next commit.

Will not add ignored files by default. If any ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, git add will fail with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your globs before the shell) will be ignored.
Adds ignored files with -f (force) .

git-commit to add content to a commit.

pathspec [] Files to add content from.
Fileglobs (for example. *.c) can be given to add all matching files.
A leading directory name (for example. dir to add dir/file1 and dir/file2) can be given to update the index to match the current state of the directory as a whole (for example. specifying dir will record not just a file dir/file1 modified in the working tree, a file dir/file2 added to the working tree, but also a file dir/file3 removed from the working tree.
Use --no-all to add modified or new files but ignore removed ones.
Don't add the file(s), show if they exist and/or will be ignored.
--ignore-missing only with --dry-run. checks if any of the given files would be ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work tree or not.
Allow adding otherwise ignored files.
Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to the index. path arguments may be supplied limiting operation to a subset of the working tree. See "Interactive mode" for details.
Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the work tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance to review the difference before adding modified contents to the index.

runs git add --interactive but bypasses the initial command menu and advances to the patch subcommand.

Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user edit it. After the editor was closed, adjust the hunk headers and apply the patch to the index. The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the patch to apply, or even to modify the contents of lines to be staged. This can be quicker and more flexible than using the interactive hunk selector. However, it is easy to confuse oneself and create a patch that does not apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
Update the index where it has an entry matching pathspec. This removes and modifies index entries to match the working tree, but adds no new files.

With no pathspec all tracked files in the working tree are updated

Update the index where the working tree has a file matching pathspec as well as where the index already has an entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to match the working tree.

With no pathspec all files in the working tree are updated (old versions of

Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the index and files modified in the working tree, but ignore files that have been removed from the working tree. This option is a no-op when no pathspec> is used. For Compatibility where "git add ..." was a synonym for "git add --no-all ...", i.e. ignored removed files.
Record only the fact that the path will be added later.
An entry for the path is placed in the index with no content.
For showing the unstaged content of files with git diff and committing them with git commit -a.
--refresh Don't add file(s), but only refresh stat information in the index.
--ignore-errors Continue the operation if some files could not be added because of errors indexing them.
Exits with non-zero status.
The configuration setting add.ignoreErrors set true makes this the default
-- used to separate command-line options from the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken for command-line options).


The optional configuration variable core.excludesFile indicates a path to a file containing patterns of file names to exclude from git-add, similar to $GIT_DIR/info/exclude. Patterns in the exclude file are used in addition to those in info/exclude. See gitignore(5).


o Adds content from all *.txt files under Documentation directory and its subdirectories:
            $ git add Documentation/\*.txt
the asterisk * is quoted which lets the command include the files from subdirectories of Documentation/ directory. o Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:
$ git add git-*.sh
this example has the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. listing the files explicitly), it does not consider subdir/


When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the output of the status subcommand,

lists subcommands and prompts What now>. ends with a single >, you can pick only one of the choices given and type return,

               *** Commands ***
                 1: status       2: update       3: revert       4: add untracked
                 5: patch        6: diff         7: quit         8: help
               What now> 1 
s or status can always be entered.
status This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be committed for git commit), and between index and working tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before git commit using git add) for each path. A sample output looks like this:
                             staged     unstaged path
                    1:       binary      nothing foo.png
                    2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (it is binary, so line count cannot be shown) and there is no difference between indexed copy and the working tree version (if the working tree version were also different, binary would have been shown in place of nothing). The other file, git-add--interactive.perl, has 403 lines added and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the index, but working tree file has further modifications (one addition and one deletion).
 git status
On branch master
Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master' by 2 commits.
  (use "git push" to publish your local commits)
Changes not staged for commit:
  (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
  (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory)
  (commit or discard the untracked or modified content in submodules)

    modified:   src/ruuvi.drivers.c (new commits, modified content)
    modified:   src/ruuvi.endpoints.c (new commits)

Untracked files:
  (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)


no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
update This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>" prompt. When the prompt ends with double >>, you can make more than one selection, concatenated with whitespace or comma. Also you can say ranges. for example. "2-5 7,9" to choose 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second number in a range is omitted, all remaining patches are taken. for example. "7-" to choose 7,8,9 from the list. You can say * to choose everything. What you chose are then highlighted with *, like this: staged unstaged path 1: binary nothing foo.png * 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl To remove selection, prefix the input with - like this: Update>> -2 After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the contents of working tree files for selected paths in the index.
revert This has a very similar UI to update, and the staged information for selected paths are reverted to that of the HEAD version. Reverting new paths makes them untracked.
add untracked This has a very similar UI to update and revert, and lets you add untracked paths to the index.
patch This lets you choose one path out of a status like selection. After choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index and the working tree file and asks you if you want to stage the change of each hunk. You can select one of the following options and type return: y - stage this hunk n - do not stage this hunk q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file g - select a hunk to go to / - search for a hunk matching the given regex j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks e - manually edit the current hunk ? - print help After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk that was chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks. You can omit having to type return here, by setting the configuration variable interactive.singleKey to true.
diff This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between HEAD and index).


Invoking git add -e or selecting e from the interactive hunk selector will open a patch in your editor; after the editor exits, the result is applied to the index. You are free to make arbitrary changes to the patch, but note that some changes may have confusing results, or even result in a patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply delete all lines of the patch. The list below describes some common things you may see in a patch, and which editing operations make sense on them. There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But beware that because the patch is applied only to the index and not the working tree, the working tree will appear to "undo" the change in the index. For example, introducing a new line into the index that is in neither the HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for commit, but the line will appear to be reverted in the working tree. Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution. removing untouched content Content which does not differ between the index and working tree may be shown on context lines, beginning with a " " (space). You can stage context lines for removal by converting the space to a "-". The resulting working tree file will appear to re-add the content. modifying existing content One can also modify context lines by staging them for removal (by converting " " to "-") and adding a "+" line with the new content. Similarly, one can modify "+" lines for existing additions or modifications. In all cases, the new modification will appear reverted in the working tree. new content You may also add new content that does not exist in the patch; simply add new lines, each starting with "+". The addition will appear reverted in the working tree. There are also several operations which should be avoided entirely, as they will make the patch impossible to apply: SEE git-status(1) git-rm(1) git-reset(1) git-mv(1) git-commit(1) git-update-index(1)