|Ellipsize fields when they do not fit in available columns. The default is to show full fields, allowing them to wrap or be
truncated by the pager, if one is used.
The old options -l/--full are not useful anymore, except to undo --no-full.
|Reverse output so that the newest entries are displayed first.
|Show all fields in full, even if they include unprintable characters or are very long.
|Show the most recent entries and continuously output new entries as they are appended .
|Immediately jump to the end of the journal inside the pager, implies -n1000 so the pager
will not buffer logs of unbounded size. may be overridden with an explicit -n , |
-nall disables this cap. only for
|Show the most recent journal events and limit the number of events shown. If --follow is used, this option is implied. The
argument is a positive integer or "all" to disable line limiting. The default value is 10 if no argument is given.
|Show all stored output lines, even in follow mode. Undoes the effect of |
|Controls the formatting of the journal entries that are shown. Takes one of the following options:
|default generates an output similar to the formatting of classic syslog files, showing line per entry.
|shows timestamps as |
--until= options accept.
includes weekday, year and timezone information in the output, and is locale-independent.
|shows ISO 8601 timestamps.
|shows timestamps with microsecond precision.
|shows monotonic timestamps instead of wallclock timestamps.
|shows seconds since January 1st 1970 UTC with microseconds
|shows the full-structured entry items with all fields.
|serializes the journal into a binary (but mostly text-based) stream suitable for backups and network transfer (see
Journal Export Format for more information).
|formats entries as JSON data structures, one per line (see Journal JSON Format
|formats entries as JSON data structures, in multiple lines in order to make them more readable by
|formats entries as JSON data structures, wraps in a format suitable for Server-Sent Events.
|very terse output, showing the actual message of with no metadata,
|Don't show the hostname field of log messages originating from the local host. only effect on the short
|Augment log lines with explanation texts
explain the context of an error or log event, possible
solutions, as well as pointers to support forums, developer documentation, and any other relevant manuals. Note that help
texts are not available for all messages, but only for selected ones. For more information on the message catalog
refer to the Message Catalog Developer Documentation.
|Suppresses all info messages (i.e. "-- Logs begin at ...", "-- Reboot --"), any warning messages regarding inaccessible
system journals when run as a normal user.
|Show entries interleaved from all available journals, including remote ones.
|Show messages from a specific boot. add a match for "|
argument may be empty, in which case logs for the current boot will be shown.
If the boot ID is omitted, a positive offset will look up the boots starting from the beginning of the journal, and an
equal-or-less-than zero offset will look up boots starting from the end of the journal. Thus, 1 means the first boot found in
the journal in chronological order, 2 the second and so on; while -0 is the last boot, -1 the boot before last, and so on. An
empty offset is equivalent to specifying -0, except when the current boot is not the last boot (e.g. because --directory was
specified to look at logs from a different machine).
If the 32-character ID is specified, it may optionally be followed by offset which identifies the boot relative to the one
given by boot ID. Negative values mean earlier boots and positive values mean later boots. If offset is not specified, a
value of zero is assumed, and the logs for the boot given by ID are shown.
|Show a tabular list of boot numbers (relative to the current boot), their IDs, and the timestamps of the first and last
message pertaining to the boot.
0 76727533a534499ebfe90a1f6c9eca7c Tue 2019-07-23 15:50:01 EDT<80><94>Sat 2019-07-27 21:30:01 EDT
|Show only kernel messages. implies |
--boot and adds match "_TRANSPORT=kernel".
|Show messages for the specified syslog identifier SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER.
parameter can be specified multiple times.
|Show messages for the specified systemd unit UNIT (such as a service unit), or for any of the units matched by PATTERN. If a
pattern is specified, a list of unit names found in the journal is compared with the specified pattern and all that match are
used. For each unit name, a match is added for messages from the unit ("_SYSTEMD_UNIT=UNIT"), along with additional matches
for messages from systemd and messages about coredumps for the specified unit.
This parameter can be specified multiple times.
|Show messages for the specified user session unit. This will add a match for messages from the unit ("_SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT="
and "_UID=") and additional matches for messages from session systemd and messages about coredumps for the specified unit.
This parameter can be specified multiple times.
|Filter output by message priorities or priority ranges. Takes either a single numeric or textual log level (i.e. between
0/"emerg" and 7/"debug"), or a range of numeric/text log levels in the form FROM..TO. The log levels are the usual syslog log
levels as documented in syslog(3), i.e. "emerg" (0), "alert" (1), "crit" (2), "err" (3), "warning" (4), "notice" (5),
"info" (6), "debug" (7). If a single log level is specified, all messages with this log level or a lower (hence more
important) log level are shown. If a range is specified, all messages within the range are shown, including both the start
and the end value of the range. This will add "PRIORITY=" matches for the specified priorities.
|Start showing entries from the location in the journal specified by the passed cursor.
|Start showing entries from the location in the journal after the location specified by the passed cursor. The cursor is shown
when the --show-cursor option is used.
|The cursor is shown after the last entry after two dashes:
-- cursor: s=0639...
|Start showing entries on or newer than the specified date, or on or older than the specified date, respectively. Date
specifications should be of the format "2012-10-30 18:17:16". If the time part is omitted, "00:00:00" is assumed. If only the
seconds component is omitted, ":00" is assumed. If the date component is omitted, the current day is assumed. Alternatively
the strings "yesterday", "today", "tomorrow" are understood, which refer to 00:00:00 of the day before the current day, the
current day, or the day after the current day, respectively. "now" refers to the current time. Finally, relative times may
be specified, prefixed with "-" or "+", referring to times before or after the current time, respectively. For complete time
and date specification, see systemd.time(7). Note that --output=short-full prints timestamps that follow precisely this
|output all possible data values the specified field can take in all entries of the journal.
|output all field names currently used in all entries of the journal.
|Show messages from system services and the kernel (with --system). Show messages from service of current user (with --user).
If neither is specified, show all messages that the user can see.
|Show messages from a running, local container. Specify a container name to connect to.
|Takes a directory path as argument. If specified, journalctl will operate on the specified journal directory DIR instead of
the default runtime and system journal paths.
|Takes a file glob as an argument. If specified, journalctl will operate on the specified journal files matching GLOB instead
of the default runtime and system journal paths. May be specified multiple times, in which case files will be suitably
|Takes a directory path as an argument. If specified, journalctl will operate on journal directories and catalog file
hierarchy underneath the specified directory instead of the root directory (e.g. --update-catalog will create
ROOT/var/lib/systemd/catalog/database, and journal files under ROOT/run/journal or ROOT/var/log/journal will be displayed).
|Instead of showing journal contents, generate a new 128-bit ID suitable for identifying messages. This is intended for usage
by developers who need a new identifier for a new message they introduce and want to make recognizable. This will print the
new ID in three different formats which can be copied into source code or similar.
|Instead of showing journal contents, show internal header information of the journal fields accessed.
|Shows the current disk usage of all journal files. This shows the sum of the disk usage of all archived and active journal
Archived and active journals take up 21.6M in the file system.
|Removes archived journal files until the disk space they use falls below the specified size (specified with the usual "K",
"M", "G" and "T" suffixes), or all archived journal files contain no data older than the specified timespan (specified with
the usual "s", "m", "h", "days", "months", "weeks" and "years" suffixes), or no more than the specified number of separate
journal files remain. Note that running --vacuum-size= has only an indirect effect on the output shown by --disk-usage, as
the latter includes active journal files, while the vacuuming operation only operates on archived journal files. Similarly,
--vacuum-files= might not actually reduce the number of journal files to below the specified number, as it will not remove
active journal files. --vacuum-size=|
--vacuum-time= and --vacuum-files= may be combined in a single invocation to enforce
any combination of a size, a time and a number of files limit on the archived journal files. Specifying any of these three
parameters as zero is equivalent to not enforcing the specific limit, and is thus redundant.
|List the contents of the message catalog as a table of message IDs, plus their short description strings.
If any 128-bit-IDs are specified, only those entries are shown.
|Show the contents of the message catalog, with entries separated by a line consisting of two dashes and the ID (the format is
the same as .catalog files).
If any 128-bit-IDs are specified, only those entries are shown.
|Update the message catalog index. This command needs to be executed each time new catalog files are installed, removed, or
updated to rebuild the binary catalog index.
|Instead of showing journal contents, generate a new key pair for Forward Secure Sealing (FSS). This will generate a sealing
key and a verification key. The sealing key is stored in the journal data directory and shall remain on the host. The
verification key should be stored externally. Refer to the Seal= option in journald.conf(5) for information on Forward Secure
Sealing and for a link to a refereed scholarly paper detailing the cryptographic theory it is based on.
|When --setup-keys is passed and Forward Secure Sealing (FSS) has already been configured, recreate FSS keys.
|Specifies the change interval for the sealing key when generating an FSS key pair with --setup-keys. Shorter intervals
increase CPU consumption but shorten the time range of undetectable journal alterations. Defaults to 15min.
|Check the journal file for internal consistency. If the file has been generated with FSS enabled and the FSS verification key
has been specified with --verify-key=, authenticity of the journal file is verified.
|Specifies the FSS verification key to use for the --verify operation.
|Asks the journal daemon to write all yet unwritten journal data to the backing file system and synchronize all journals. This
call does not return until the synchronization operation is complete. This command guarantees that any log messages written
before its invocation are safely stored on disk at the time it returns.
|Asks the journal daemon to flush any log data stored in /run/log/journal into /var/log/journal, if persistent storage is
enabled. This call does not return until the operation is complete. Note that this call is idempotent: the data is only
flushed from /run/log/journal into /var/log/journal once during system runtime, and this command exits cleanly without
executing any operation if this has already happened. This command effectively guarantees that all data is flushed to
/var/log/journal at the time it returns.
|Asks the journal daemon to rotate journal files. This call does not return until the rotation operation is complete.
|Print a short help text and exit.
|Print a short version string and exit.
|Do not pipe output into a pager.